The youngest son, Henry, received money. Anschatel Groy settled in Chillingham in Northumberland after accompanying William the Conqueror in 1066. of a series of incidents that brought about the Boston Massacre later that From the Charleton family it passed by marriage in 1421 to John Grey. Edwin and Morcar submitted, but William continued on to York, building York and Nottingham Castles before returning south. Rhode Island. Born in France, William was an illegitimate child of Robert I . Suffolk, all of that surname derived from the honor and Castle of Gray, William was the son of Robert I, duke of Normandy (reigned 1027-1035), and a woman of lower social status named Herleva. [2], Norman government under William was similar to the government that had existed under earlier dukes. Although Orderic Vitalis describes it as starting with a quarrel between Robert and his two younger brothers, William and Henry, including a story that the quarrel was started when William and Henry threw water at Robert, it is much more likely that Robert was feeling powerless. Lady Jane Gray(Queen of England for several days only) was a direct decendant. Many of the people have more than one path to William, but this is mostly just showing one (ideally the shortest path). of Rotherfield, Codmore, Wilton, Rhuthun, Groby and Rugemont, the Viscount The exact reasons are unclear, as no contemporary author recorded what caused the quarrel between the half-brothers. [73], Harold's brother Tostig made probing attacks along the southern coast of England in May 1066, landing at the Isle of Wight using a fleet supplied by Baldwin of Flanders. Gytha Thorkelsdttir, Harold's mother, offered the victorious duke the weight of her son's body in gold for its custody, but her offer was refused. [137] William's exact motivation in ordering the survey is unclear, but it probably had several purposes, such as making a record of feudal obligations and justifying increased taxation. [86] The English soldiers formed up as a shield wall along the ridge and were at first so effective that William's army was thrown back with heavy casualties. [80], Tostig Godwinson and Harald Hardrada invaded Northumbria in September 1066 and defeated the local forces under Morcar and Edwin at the Battle of Fulford near York. Born circa 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France, William the Conqueror was an illegitimate child of Robert I, duke of Normandy, who died in 1035 while returning from a pilgrimage to . For the second ruler of Normandy, see. that Edward and Thomas were to inherit. and enlisted the sympathies of the world. By Easter, William was at Winchester, where he was soon joined by his wife Matilda, who was crowned in May 1068. [139], William's grave is currently marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription dating from the early 19th century. Walcher was killed on 14 May 1080, and the king dispatched his half-brother Odo to deal with the rebellion. 2. By 1060, following a long struggle to establish his throne, his hold on Normandy was secure. It was an annual tax based on the value of landholdings, and it could be collected at differing rates. According to stories that may have legendary elements, an attempt was made to seize William at Valognes, but he escaped under cover of darkness, seeking refuge with King Henry. [45] Papal sanction of the marriage appears to have required the founding of two monasteries in Caen one by William and one by Matilda. On the death He escaped and, by traveling In that year he gave Rhuthun to Reginald de Grey. by George Washington as a privateer during the Revolutionary War. The Gray family in America is numerous, widespread and consists of many [63] No English source mentions a supposed embassy by Archbishop Robert to William conveying the promise of the succession, and the two Norman sources that mention it, William of Jumiges and William of Poitiers, are not precise in their chronology of when this visit took place. Edward was a leading citizen and William remained in Normandy while his men in England subdued the revolt. Some appear to have been reluctant to take up lands in a kingdom that did not always appear pacified. He was opposed to King William's power on the continent, thus the Battle of Cassel upset the balance of power in northern France as well as costing William an important supporter. The other, the De obitu Willelmi, or On the Death of William, has been shown to be a copy of two 9th-century accounts with names changed. William's son Robert, still allied with the French king, appears to have been active in stirring up trouble, enough so that William led an expedition against the French Vexin in July 1087. England remained unstable. King Robert Bruce when he ascended the throne. of Tiverton had a son William whose son Robert was the discoverer of the in time of war and helped build it in peacetime. The information that follows was researched and kindly provided by Rodney These fortifications allowed Normans to retreat into safety when threatened with rebellion and allowed garrisons to be protected while they occupied the countryside. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke, and for their own ends. Arguing that Edward had previously promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support his claim, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066. in Northumberland. [110], In 1075, during William's absence, Ralph de Gael, the Earl of Norfolk, and Roger de Breteuil, the Earl of Hereford, conspired to overthrow William in the "Revolt of the Earls". [143] How abrupt and far-reaching the changes were is still a matter of debate among historians, with some such as Richard Southern claiming that the Conquest was the single most radical change in European history between the Fall of Rome and the 20th century. The listing for each county gives the holdings of each landholder, grouped by owners. He also allowed his son Robert Curthose to do homage to the new Count of Anjou, Geoffrey the Bearded. After three weeks, the besieged forces sallied from the castle and managed to take the besiegers by surprise. Many Grays of this line were sailors, ship owners, ship captains and [116] William immediately attacked the rebels and drove them from Remalard, but King Philip gave them the castle at Gerberoi, where they were joined by new supporters. left and came back later with some help, but Sams friends came to his aid at night, was able to get to the coast and over to France where he got The soldier took offense and went at Sam Harold assembled an army and a fleet to repel William's anticipated invasion force, deploying troops and ships along the English Channel for most of the summer. While his father Robert was the Duke of Normandy, his mother was no duchess. [48], No authentic portrait of William has been found; the contemporary depictions of him on the Bayeux Tapestry and on his seals and coins are conventional representations designed to assert his authority. I have probably played with most of them. [q] Another reason for the appointment may have been pressure from the papacy to appoint Lanfranc. It is unclear whether William would have been supplanted in the ducal succession if Robert had had a legitimate son. [16][17][h] He enjoyed the support of his great-uncle, Archbishop Robert, as well as King Henry I of France, enabling him to succeed to his father's duchy. [106], William returned to England to release his army from service in 1073 but quickly returned to Normandy, where he spent all of 1074. She was a nobody, likely the daughter of a tanner and far, far below his father's station. Gray instead of Grey is almost universally used in the different branches Stigand submitted to William there, and when the duke moved on to Berkhamsted soon afterwards, Edgar the theling, Morcar, Edwin, and Ealdred also submitted. [79] Harold kept his forces on alert throughout the summer, but with the arrival of the harvest season he disbanded his army on 8 September. The Dorset Grays are of great antiquity, Edgar, having lost much of his support, fled to Scotland,[98] where King Malcolm III was married to Edgar's sister Margaret. who reigned briefly as an unwilling Queen, has attracted the attention After further military efforts, William was crowned king on Christmas Day, 1066, in London. The chronicler Orderic Vitalis states that Edwin's reason for revolting was that the proposed marriage between himself and one of William's daughters had not taken place, but another reason probably included the increasing power of fitzOsbern in Herefordshire, which affected Edwin's power within his own earldom. Park Street Congregational Church, Boston. This daughter later married William, lord of, Walter had two daughters. support the effort with food, money and work in recruiting and organization. captured Reginald. [51] Examination of William's femur, the only bone to survive when the rest of his remains were destroyed, showed he was approximately 5feet 10inches (1.78m) in height. Edgar the theling also appears to have been given lands. [61] By 1050, however, relations between the king and the earl had soured, culminating in a crisis in 1051 that led to the exile of Godwin and his family from England. Members of the Gray or de Gray family later ride with William the Conqueror to defeat the Brittish at the Battle of Hastings(1066). Norman coins had a much lower silver content, were often of poor artistic quality, and were rarely re-minted. of John included John Lord Grey of Groby who married Elizabeth Wydville, [93], William remained in England after his coronation and tried to reconcile the native magnates. [49] There are some written descriptions of a burly and robust appearance, with a guttural voice. of the same family, which had emigrated to this country and made their These dates would The historian Eleanor Searle speculates that William was raised with the three cousins who later became important in his career William fitzOsbern, Roger de Beaumont, and Roger of Montgomery. [92], William may have hoped the English would surrender following his victory, but they did not. [131], After 1066, William did not attempt to integrate his separate domains into one unified realm with one set of laws. I know there are loads of wonderful programs to assist in the tabulation, formation and display of the largest family tree. Scotland in the reign of Alexander II, (about 1130), and gave his allegiance [45] Contemporary writers considered the marriage, which produced four sons and five or six daughters, to be a success. Although the army and fleet were ready by early August, adverse winds kept the ships in Normandy until late September. in the United States. He finally crossed the Thames at Wallingford in early December. The tomb has been disturbed several times since 1087, the first time in 1522 when the grave was opened on orders from the papacy. Northumberland persuaded the sickly Edward VI to name Lady Jane Grey as his heir just before his death on 6 July 1553. He also retained control of much of the lands of Harold and his family, which made the king the largest secular landowner in England by a wide margin. of King Edward, her son the young Prince Consort, and her son Lord Gray, Robert also married his half-sister Bertha to King Philip I of France, who was opposed to Norman power. issue has continued in Scotland." As William is an 11th generation descendant of Charlemagne (747-814), the people below also descend from . The Conquest brought the kingdom into closer contact with France and forged ties between France and England that lasted throughout the Middle Ages. Later English sources stated that Harold had been elected as king by the clergy and magnates of England. Members Alfred returned to England in 1036 to visit his mother and perhaps to challenge Harold as king. William and Malcolm agreed to peace by signing the Treaty of Abernethy, and Malcolm probably gave up his son Duncan as a hostage for the peace. Born in the United States. The second, which included some who became William's firm supporters, such as Robert, Count of Eu, Walter Giffard, Roger of Mortemer, and William de Warenne, faced the other invading force. [n][79] Events after the invasion, which included the penance William performed and statements by later popes, do lend circumstantial support to the claim of papal approval. Ecclesiastical offices continued to be held by the same bishops as before the invasion, including the uncanonical Stigand. A Norman chief, whose name was [37], In February 1054 the king and the Norman rebels launched a double invasion of the duchy. William becomes King of England. [120] William also visited Wales in 1081, although the English and the Welsh sources differ on the exact purpose of the visit. This Edward was a farmer and active in civic affairs. [87] The available sources are more confused about events in the afternoon, but it appears that the decisive event was Harold's death, about which differing stories are told. The fleet carried an invasion force that included, in addition to troops from William's own territories of Normandy and Maine, large numbers of mercenaries, allies, and volunteers from Brittany, northeastern France, and Flanders, together with smaller numbers from other parts of Europe. [127], By William's death, after weathering a series of rebellions, most of the native Anglo-Saxon aristocracy had been replaced by Norman and other continental magnates. [135] Coinage across his domains continued to be minted in different cycles and styles. Aug 29, 2018. In 1072 William invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm, who had recently invaded the north of England. and heiress of Henry heir apparent of William.". All the English counties south of the River Tees and River Ribble are included, and the whole work seems to have been mostly completed by 1 August 1086, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that William received the results and that all the chief magnates swore the Salisbury Oath, a renewal of their oaths of allegiance. [140][w], The immediate consequence of William's death was a war between his sons Robert and William over control of England and Normandy. There were probably other reasons for William's delay, including intelligence reports from England revealing that Harold's forces were deployed along the coast. town report or directory are about all there is. [9] Herleva was possibly a member of the ducal household, but did not marry Robert. that John Gray was not native to Stapleford Tawney, but was only a resident [84], The battle began at about 9am on 14 October and lasted all day, but while a broad outline is known, the exact events are obscured by contradictory accounts in the sources. In 1047, William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process that was not complete until about 1060. Following his arrival back on the continent he married his daughter Constance to Duke Alan of Brittany, in furtherance of his policy of seeking allies against the French kings. There is no record of the reason from the Council, and the main evidence is from Orderic Vitalis. Edward had no heir, but requested William to be his heir apparent to the throne. The Grays in Ireland, usually The exact events preceding the battle are obscure, with contradictory accounts in the sources, but all agree that William led his army from his castle and advanced towards the enemy. [109] Ralph was at least part Breton and had spent most of his life prior to 1066 in Brittany, where he still had lands. and were for many generations in high favor with the English kings. [60] The trip is unlikely given William's absorption in warfare with Anjou at the time. [57], In 1051 the childless King Edward of England appears to have chosen William as his successor. Gray who was slain at the second battle of St. Albans, 1461. Although the chronicler William of Poitiers claimed that Edward's succession was due to Duke William's efforts, this is highly unlikely, as William was at that time practically powerless in his own duchy. The French king, seeking a focus for those opposed to William's power, then proposed that Edgar be given the castle of Montreuil-sur-Mer on the Channel, which would have given Edgar a strategic advantage against William. York was captured by the combined forces of Edgar and Sweyn. was a son of Gray in Chillingham, Northumberland, England, who came to King Harold received word of their invasion and marched north, defeating the invaders and killing Tostig and Hardrada on 25 September at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. T he surname is originally French, being first borne by Fulbert, Great Chamberlain of Robert, Duke of Normandy, who granted him the castle and lands of Croy or Gray in Picardy which he thereafter assumed as the family surname. As early as 1622, two brothers, Thomas and John He died in early July at Nicea, on his way back to Normandy. Return to Newport County RIGenWeb Home Page. [34] However, in 1052 the king and Geoffrey Martel made common cause against William at the same time as some Norman nobles began to contest William's increasing power. It Marcher Lords. According to a late source not generally considered to be reliable, papal sanction was not secured until 1059, but as papal-Norman relations in the 1050s were generally good, and Norman clergy were able to visit Rome in 1050 without incident, it was probably secured earlier. I have therefore made yet another attempt the produce the Descendants of William the Conqueror in text . Two further Norman retreats were feigned, to once again draw the English into pursuit and expose them to repeated attacks by the Norman cavalry. In 1086, he ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all of the land-holdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. English coins were generally of high silver content, with high artistic standards, and were required to be re-minted every three years. Andrew Morton Carr Descendant of the right-hand general Ker of William the Conqueror. A papal embassy arrived in England during this period, asking that William do fealty for England to the papacy, a request that he rejected. After hurried consultations, the allegation was shown to be true, and the man was compensated. Sir Edward de Gray married daughter He was not known as a patron of authors, and there is little evidence that he sponsored scholarships or other intellectual activities. of that parish for some years. [2] Orderic Vitalis records that William tried to learn to read Old English late in life, but he was unable to devote sufficient time to the effort and quickly gave up. [e] His mother Herleva was a daughter of Fulbert of Falaise; he may have been a tanner or embalmer. Another Tiverton Gray, Pardon Gray was active during the war also. de Gray, (III) John from whom the most illustrious branches of the house correspond with John of Stapleford, as his eldest child was born in 1608. [20] The support given to the exiled English princes in their attempt to return to England in 1036 shows that the new duke's guardians were attempting to continue his father's policies,[2] but Archbishop Robert's death in March 1037 removed one of William's main supporters, and conditions in Normandy quickly descended into chaos. [80], After defeating Harald Hardrada and Tostig, Harold left much of his army in the north, including Morcar and Edwin, and marched the rest south to deal with the threatened Norman invasion. [115], In late 1077 or early 1078 trouble began between William and his eldest son, Robert. there were at least twenty different families of Grays, or different branches afterward queen of Edward IV; Thomas Grey, created Marquis of Dorset in but found "himself bruished and bloody on the ground." He crossed back and forth between the continent and England at least 19 times between 1067 and his death. His conquest had major implications for the history of both regions, from displacing much of the pre-Conquest Anglo-Saxon nobility to reshaping the English language.. William's early life. His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. This was an advantage for William, as it was the only universal tax collected by western European rulers during this period. See also the [15], William faced several challenges on becoming duke, including his illegitimate birth and his youth: the evidence indicates that he was either seven or eight years old at the time. He was crowned the Duke in 1035 and over the years made himself the mightiest noble in France, later seizing the English throne in 1066. father or the son. [144] The historian Eleanor Searle describes William's invasion as "a plan that no ruler but a Scandinavian would have considered". Thomas Gray were living there in 1579. repeated in mixed company." He decisively defeated and killed Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. John, baptized 1612. After entrusting England to his second son, the elder William sent the younger William back to England on 7 or 8 September, bearing a letter to Lanfranc ordering the archbishop to aid the new king. Waltheof, the earl of Northumbria, although one of William's favourites, was also involved, and there were some Breton lords who were ready to rebel in support of Ralph and Roger. It is to be presumed William's biographer David Bates argues that the former explanation is more likely, explaining that the balance of power had recently shifted in Wales and that William would have wished to take advantage of the changed circumstances to extend Norman power. The first, which he led, faced Henry. He married Matilda of Flanders in 1051, in Normandy, France. William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his son, Robert, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes. in and about London. The early castles were simple earth and timber constructions, later replaced with stone structures. Though he spoke a dialect of French and grew up in Normandy, a fiefdom loyal to the French . [30], William's next efforts were against Guy of Burgundy, who retreated to his castle at Brionne, which William besieged. Another consequence of William's invasion was the sundering of the formerly close ties between England and Scandinavia. A.P. Within the first century, between 1620 and 1720, research indicates that [142], The impact on England of William's conquest was profound; changes in the Church, aristocracy, culture, and language of the country have persisted into modern times. [s] William was able to make peace with Philip in 1077 and secured a truce with Count Fulk in late 1077 or early 1078. described in what is called the Grand Deed. Although Alexander did give papal approval to the conquest after it succeeded, no other source claims papal support prior to the invasion. His sons also lost much of their control over Maine, which revolted in 1089 and managed to remain mostly free of Norman influence thereafter. Sir John Gray, Knight of Berwick, 1372, was father [132], William took over an English government that was more complex than the Norman system. They included the duke's uncle Robert, the archbishop of Rouen, who had originally opposed the duke; Osbern, a nephew of Gunnor the wife of Richard I; and Gilbert of Brionne, a grandson of Richard I. These controversies have led to William being seen by some historians either as one of the creators of England's greatness or as inflicting one of the greatest defeats in English history. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, and by difficulties with his eldest son, Robert Curthose. Lady Jane Grey (r. 10-19 July 1553) The accession of Lady Jane Grey as Queen was engineered by the powerful Duke of Northumberland, President of the King's Council, in the interests of promoting his own dynastic line. The name was originally Croy. A John Gray was buried May 28, 1658. [73][m] King Harald Hardrada of Norway also had a claim to the throne as the uncle and heir of King Magnus I, who had made a pact with Harthacnut in about 1040 that if either Magnus or Harthacnut died without heirs, the other would succeed. of Hastings, and was recorded in the Domesday Book (a record complied by In modern times they have contributed poets, statesmen In the Department of Haute-Saone, there is now a town [2] Knowledge of the events preceding his death is confused because there are two different accounts. John, Lord of Gray, whose son Anschetil de Gray was one of William the Conquerors companions in arms at the battle of Hastings, and was recorded in the Domesday Book (a record complied by a royal commission set up by William in 1085-86), as lord of many manors and lordships in the counties of Oxford and . In England several families from this . of Lisle, the Earl of Stamford, the Marquis of Dorset, and the Duke of Wikimedia Commons. He hinted obliquely that William and Matilda were, The exact date of the marriage is unknown, but it was probably in 1051 or 1052, and certainly before the end of 1053, as Matilda is named as William's wife in a. theling means "prince of the royal house" and usually denoted a son or brother of a ruling king. The list below shows descent from William the Conqueror (see Descendants of William I of England for another list). The elder John de Gray had a son, Henry [2] Although he put two Normans in overall charge, he retained many of the native English sheriffs. Lord Gray made also a separate entail of his estate, upon which there passed a charter under the great seal, in favours of William master of Gray, * and the heirs-male procreate or to be procreate betwixt him and Anne mistress of Gray, (therein designed daughter and heiress of Andrew . Permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement ceding the county of Rouen to Rollo. William also benefited from his campaign in Brittany by securing the support of some Breton nobles who went on to support the invasion of England in 1066. [12], Robert I succeeded his elder brother Richard III as duke on 6 August 1027. Most were constructed from earth and timber, but work had also begun on great stone towers in . [109] William's ability to leave England for an entire year was a sign that he felt that his control of the kingdom was secure. [65] William's western border was thus secured, but his border with Brittany remained insecure. [14] After his accession, Robert continued Norman support for the English princes Edward and Alfred, who were still in exile in northern France. [100] William's half-brother Odo perhaps expected to be appointed to Canterbury, but William probably did not wish to give that much power to a family member. Some of the native abbots were also deposed, both at the council held near Easter and at a further one near Whitsun. In the 1050s and early 1060s, William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. [4] In an effort to improve matters, King thelred the Unready took Emma, sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy, as his second wife in 1002. Samuel Gray, son of Edward of Tiverton, moved to Boston and could be [22] Yet another guardian, Osbern, was slain in the early 1040s in William's chamber while the duke slept. [138] He was taken to the priory of Saint Gervase at Rouen, where he died on 9 September 1087. [80] He probably learned of William's landing while he was travelling south. cooperstown collection shirts, turtle bay room service menu,
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